At one point prosecutors had recommended that the court award restitution to 25 people.
Judge Garaufis determined that 17 people deserved restitution under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, which applies to crimes including forced labor, sex trafficking and document servitude. Those victims are entitled to restitution for legal counsel they retained in connection with the government investigation and Mr. Raniere’s criminal proceedings, the value of unpaid labor they performed within D.O.S., and medical services, including mental health care and brand removal.
Another four people are entitled to restitution under a second law, the Mandatory Victim Restitution Act of 1996, which applies to crimes including racketeering, racketeering conspiracy and wire fraud conspiracy.
Among those to whom Mr. Raniere is being ordered to pay restitution is Sarah Edmondson, one of the first people to speak publicly about the brandings. In 2017 she told The New York Times that she wept as she endured that experience and “disassociated out of my body.”
Other recipients include a woman identified only as Sylvie, who testified during Mr. Raniere’s trial that she was ordered to have sex with him and described life within D.O.S. as “lies and deceit and darkness,” and a woman identified as Daniela, who testified that Mr. Raniere became jealous when she rejected him and caused her to be kept in a room for two years.
The largest restitution amount, $507,997, was awarded to Daniela’s younger sister, Camila. Mr. Raniere began sexually abusing Camila when she was 15, according to court records. Judge Garaufis said on Tuesday that there was information that “the defendant induced her to submit to pornographic photography sessions.”
Judge Garaufis also said lower-ranking D.O.S. members “are statutorily entitled to the return of their collateral” and directed Mr. Raniere to assist in that effort. But that order was stayed until Mr. Raniere’s appeal of his conviction is exhausted.
While restitution cases with a single victim and perpetrator — and one clear-cut crime — can be straightforward, Mr. Raniere’s case appeared to be particularly complex, said Paul G. Cassell, a former federal judge in Utah and professor at the S.J. Quinney College of Law at the University of Utah, who has written about crime victims and restitution.